Little has been said about Norway’s influence on Nephi Anderson and his literary works even though the country figures prominently in Added Upon and other works. Anderson himself was born in what is now Oslo in 1865 and lived there until his family immigrated to Utah in 1871. He also returned in 1891 to serve a mission, and his letters and journals from this time period are open to researchers at the Church History Library in Salt Lake City. I haven’t yet looked at them, but I imagine they have much to say about why Anderson carried his readers time and again to Norway. Was it nationalism? Love for the Norwegian Saints? A missionary’s zeal for his field of labor?
The Castle Builder, Anderson’s third novel, suggests it may have been a combination of all three. Set entirely in Norway, the novel follows the rags-to-riches life of Harald Einersen, a Norwegian sheep-herder whose ambition draws him away from his alcoholic father into a world of ideas. Thoughtful by nature, Harald nevertheless faces challenges in his education because of the economic advantages of others, his own economic disadvantages, and his penchant for free-thinking in matters of religion. These upsets, combined with his disillusionment in existing religious doctrines, lead him to a life of radical political activity that serves mainly to fill a spiritual void until something better comes along.
That “something better” turns out to be Mormonism, which Harald embraces midway through the novel after a soul-searching climb to the top of a mountain. Like Marcus King, the protagonist of Anderson’s second novel, Harald becomes something of a town pariah after his conversion. For Harald, however, the blessings and rewards of his new faith are enough to bring him through to the end of the novel.
In many ways, The Castle Builder is like Marcus King, Mormon in that it is a conversion novel about a young man who forsakes the earthly esteem of his community for the eternal esteem of Christ. Both Marcus and Harald share the trademarks of the Andersonian hero: sensitivity, intellect, ambition, and moral courage. Like Anderson, they also make school teaching their profession, although Harald ultimately leaves teaching for politics and the business world. Even this deviation, however, does little to separate Harald from Marcus. What differences the two characters share are suggested subtly through The Castle Builder’s theme of class inequality and its Norwegian setting. Unlike Marcus, in other words, Harald is one who works from the bottom up, a perspective that makes him sympathetic to democracy and the injustices of a religious system that damns those who never had a fair chance at hearing the gospel of Christ. For him, Mormonism becomes the solution to the disadvantages of his birth, a veritable renaissance of being:
Harald Einersen was now a "Mormon," and did not care how soon the world, his world at least, knew of it. The struggle had been long and hard, but it was now over, and he was satisfied. He knew now that if the political movement which he had helped to forward was to be carried on, some one else would have to do it. His leadership was at an end. He had gone into a new world, and this change was as complete as if he had died and had arisen in another sphere. (182)
Significantly, Norway serves meaningfully as the backdrop of this change. In the past, I’ve criticized Mormon literature for being too Utah-and Americentric, but The Castle Builder shows—along with Added Upon and Anderson’s A Daughter of the North—that Mormon literature has an old undercurrent of stories about international Mormonism. Indeed, The Castle Builder is particularly noteworthy because it features only one American character—the Norwegian-American missionary Elder Olsen—and its main characters choose to stay in Norway rather than immigrate to “Zion” in Utah. While this choice is based on practical necessity rather than religious convictions—Harald and Thora, his love interest, remain in Norway to care for their aging parents—it nevertheless anticipates and even reflects changing attitudes about international converts and the merits and practicality of gathering all Saints to a central location.